The famous Portugese Synagogue was originally opened in 1675. It was completely renovated during 2010 and 2011 and the renovation is still ongoing. The main building is now ready and really worth a visit. It has a very special atmosphere, because of the day light, architecture and quietness. And of course its impressive history.
While you are very nearby you might consider visiting the Hollandse Schouwburg which shows an impressing exhibition about the deportation of Dutch Jews during 1940 – 1945.